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Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
e-ISSN: 1647-7251
Vol. 15, Nº. 1 (May 2024 October 2024)
360
NOTES AND REFLECTIONS
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOICIO ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF ENERGY
USAGE IN KWALI TOWN, FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA
YAHAYA NASIRU
nasmannasir2012@gmail.com
Zonal Advance Space Technology Application Laboratory (ZASTAL) NASRDA, Gombe State
(Nigeria).
OGUCHE CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH
christodreams1@gmail.com
Department of Seed Information, Data Mgt & Capacity Building, National Agricultural Seeds
Council, Abuja (Nigeria).
Introduction
Energy resources in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more than enough to satisfy its overall
energy requirements if they are well developed and evenly distributed, but unfortunately
SSA remains the central point of global energy poverty. Presently, around 588 and 783
million persons in SSA do not have access to clean energy sources like solar powered
electricity, wind, and geothermal energy for lighting and cooking fuels respectively. The
situation even becomes overwhelming in the context of climate change given the fact
that the current energy system of most SSA countries is dominated by fossil fuels and
traditional biomass.
Air pollution occasioned by the use of unclean energy has become an environmental
challenge worldwide. Air pollution is one of the most common forms of environmental
problems especially among the third world countries. In Nigeria, air pollution is a concern
because it is hazardous to man and his environment (Geissler et al., 2018; HEI, 2018;
Vanguard, 2018; World Health Organisation, 2018; Guo, Wei, Li, 2019). Experts have
found that air pollutant (aerosols) can accumulate in the tissues of living organisms and
the environment. It is also linked with global warming and climate change phenomenon
(Gerson, 2008; Idoko, 2019). This scenario occurs when the green houses gases is
trapped in the atmosphere (Seppälä et al., 2019). Thus, growing concerns about this
issue has made the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) to capture
energy access, renewable energy, and energy efficiency as its goal number 7 (SDG7)
(UNDP, 2013). Experts in advanced countries have realized this and have put clean
energy at the top of their agenda. In spite of this, only a very few studies have been
conducted to highlight the issue in the context of energy in Nigeria, by extension FCT,
Abuja (Onoja and Idoko, 2012).
JANUS.NET, e-journal of International Relations
e-ISSN: 1647-7251
Vol. 15, Nº. 1 (May 2024 October 2024), pp. 360-371
Notes and Reflections
Environmental and Soicio Economic Implications of Energy Usage
in Kwali Town, Fct, Abuja, Nigeria
Yahaya Nasiru, Oguche Christopher Joseph
361
Unclean energy use in the residential sector is mainly consumed in the form of traditional
solid fuels that is animal dung, charcoal, coal, and fuel wood, for cooking and heating,
and this contributes significantly to ambient air pollution, global warming and climate
change. Onoja, Idoko, & Adah (2008) identified cooking fuel as one of the leading factors
responsible for the rate of deforestation in FCT, Abuja. Therefore, providing all
households with modern energy will reduce environmental pollution and energy
consumption will require effective policy reforms. Apart from the lack of adequate
finance, a key obstacle to facilitating sustainable energy development is the lack of proper
information by policymakers about the possible impacts of different energy policy
pathways (WHO, 2017).
Studies from one of the countries in SSA, Nigeria is the most populous and largest
economy in Africa, endowed with a large menu of energy resources, but only about 61%
and 6% of its entire population have access to electricity and clean cooking equipment
respectively (Ogie and Oghogho, 2013). The country is currently struggling to provide
modern energy for all its citizens. Realizing this ambitious goal will require the
triangulation of policies, coordinated support, and strong political will from the
government. However, the design of such policies for a successful energy transition
needs to be informed by quantitative assessments which consider the role of technologies
towards de-carbonizing the household sector and ensuring energy security. Energy
system models can be applied to explore the future energy pathways of a sector or
region.
Evidently, Kwali town has been witnessing rapid growth over the years since the
establishment of Federal Government College and Government Secondary School Abuja
in 1986. The change has also translated to the increasing energy demand and
consumption pattern in the town. Access to energy and electricity is basic human right
that is threatened by the increasing demand and consumption pattern by the teeming
population.
Accessing energy is a more prominent challenge in Kwali as with other cities in Nigeria,
and the cost of environment impact of energy usage is very high. Due to poor access to
clean energy resources by the teeming population, it’s usage have being posing negative
impact on several communities in Kwali namely; Ashara, Dafa, Gumbo, Kilankwa I & II,
Kundu, Kwali, Pai, Wako, Yangoji and Yebu. Consequently, many households resolve to
several alternative sources for their day-to-day activities. The increasing demand for
energy in Kwali has resulted to severe environmental challenges such as changes in
ambient temperature, visibility and decline in the quality of air.
Several researchers have studied and reported works relating to energy conservation and
environmentally friendly energy strategies in countries across Europe, Asia and Latin
America (Epe Shari et al., 2020; Halbe, 2013; Newsom, 2012; Teng et al., 2012; Zerinou
et al., 2020). The following scholars have focus on energy types, energy consumption
and economic development. Specifically, Osueke and Ezugwu (2011) investigated
‘Nigeria energy resources and its consumption, Onoja and Idoko (2012) worked on
‘Econometric analysis of factors influencing fuelwood demand in rural and peri-urban
farm households of FCT, Abuja, Kayode et al. (2015) did theirs on ‘Analysis of Household
JANUS.NET, e-journal of International Relations
e-ISSN: 1647-7251
Vol. 15, Nº. 1 (May 2024 October 2024), pp. 360-371
Notes and Reflections
Environmental and Soicio Economic Implications of Energy Usage
in Kwali Town, Fct, Abuja, Nigeria
Yahaya Nasiru, Oguche Christopher Joseph
362
Energy consumption in Nigeria’ using residents of Ibadan, Nigeria, Awosusi and Oriye
(2015) worked on the economic development of Kwali, while Ibrahim and Cudjoe (2021)
focused on ‘The Environmental Impact of Energy Consumption in Nigeria: Evidence from
CO
2
Emission’. However, none of these studies have looked at assessment of energy
usage and its environmental implication on Kwali Town, FCT, Abuja. It is against this
background that the study is pertinent. Hence, this paper tends to fill this gap.
1. Study area
Kwali is located in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria (see figures 1 & 2). Its coordinates are: latitude
7
O
15’ to 7
O
29’ N, and Longitude 7
O
11’ to 7
O
32’ E and is one of the rapidly urbanizing
towns in Abuja, Nigeria.
Figure 1: Nigeria showing FCT, Abuja
Source: Department of Geography and Environmental Mgt, Uniabuja (2019)